Naringin, one of the flavonoids in grapefruit and citrus is a Naringenin glycoside. Atherosclerotic, anti-oxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties have been reported.
Sakamoto et al. have performed the acylation of naringin with different fatty acids using immobilized lipase, and investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of naringin acyl esters. Naringin lauroyl ester which is acylated with C12 fatty acid most strongly inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in murine macrophage cells. Furthermore, it has been revealed that naringin lauroyl ester suppresses the LPS-induced expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) by blocking the phosphorylation of the inhibitory protein of nuclear factor-&kappa";"B (NF-&kappa";"B).